evo da nastavim o tijelu:
Tjelesna psihoterapija :
WILHELM REICH, u svom radu, napušta jezik objašnjenja koji se bavi dijagnozama, analizama, kategorizacijom i klasifikacijom jer taj jezik potiče “iz glave” i obično služi kao odbrana protiv svesnosti o značaju tela. On se hvata u koštac sa energijom tela koristeći jezik istraživanja koji je otelotvoreni jezik, pomaže čoveku da se poveže sa svojim iskustvima i sa iskustvima drugih.
Terapija, uopšte, koristi tri jezička sistema ili dijaloga: jezik reči, jezik tela i, kao teći, dijalog između ta dva jezika. Psihoanalitičari, primarno, koriste jezik reči, rahijanski terapeuti ističu jezik tela. Telesni terapeuti moraju da razumeju dijalog između reči i telesnih ekspresija i usmere osobu da napusti jezik objašnjenja i nauči jezik istraživanja.
Etiologija većine problema klijenata je konstantna represija koja često započinje još u ranim danima, a obuhvata i seksualnu i fizičku i emocionalnu i psihološku represiju. Ona se manifestuje na telu u vidu psihosomatske memorije u višestrukim slojevima. Pošto ljudi nisu glave koje hodaju, već imaju i tela, ne možemo da ignorišemo telesne procese koji su fiziološka osnova mnogih tzv. duševnih poremećaja. Analiza, sama po sebi, teško (da li uopšte?) dopire do tih fizičkih i fizioloških represija na koži, mišićima i, čak dalje, do samih telesnih ćelija. Telesna psihoterapija, koja objedinjuje rad na telu i umu, može da bude vrlo efikasna u poništavanju ovih ustaljenih obuzdavanja i u oslobađanju tela i uma od represivnih efekata. Konačni cilj je osloboditi životnu energiju i usmeriti je u pravcu jasnoće, slobode, ljubavi, poštenja, empatskog poštovanja i radosti.
Jedan od zadataka telesne psihoterapije je da pomogne čoveku da dođe do svojih osećanja i da ih artikuliše, da se od otuđene karakterne strukture pomeri ka proživljenoj komunikaciji i kontaktu. Oslobađanje životne energije kroz telesni rad stvara visok energetski potencijal i kreira pulsaciju koja je preduslov produbljivanja odnosa sa drugim ljudima. Nije cilj da se eksplodira već da se pulsira, nije cilj act-out već act-in. Važno je da čovek nauči da kaže ono što misli i da misli ono što kaže; da oseća ono šta govori i da govori ono što oseća. Ako osoba govori jedno a njeno telo drugo, telesni terapeut postaje prevodilac između jezika reči i jezika tela, otvara dijalog između njih, integriše govor i osećanja, pokret i zvuk, ton glasa i ton mišića. Na taj način pomaže stvaranju kvalitetnije komunikacije između glave i trupa i energija može lako da se kreće u oba pravca - od glave ka trupu, od trupa ka glavi. Tako se uspostavlja vertikalno spajanje, tj. celovitost jedne osobe.
U susretu dve osobe dolazi do horizontalnog spajanja: reč na reč, telo na telo, srce na srce. Taj prenos energije između dve osobe je ukršten. Prvo se uspostavlja vertikalno a zatim horizontalno spajanje. To predstavlja energetski most između dva čoveka, sa dve strane: ja ka tebi, ti ka meni. Kada je taj most dobro uspostavljen govorimo o istinskom slaganju dve osobe. Energija teče slobodno u dva pravca, kreira čistu komunikaciju, efektivnu radnu sposobnost, razmenu humanosti i rast koji donosi zadovoljstvo. Tada možemo govoriti o pravom transferu. Ako taj most nije dobro uspostavljen onda je komunikacija uznemirujuća, blokirana, zavodljiva i manipulativna, previše pasivna ili previše aktivna, u svakom slučaju nekvalitetna. Pravi rad na transferu je onda kada pomognemo sebi i drugima da se pomerimo sa destruktivnih obrazaca interakcije ka kreativnim obrascima.
i Reichov tekst o armoringu
WILHELM REICH - ARMORING
The Ocular Segment
This is the first segment and is concerned with all contact at a distance (except field reactions 27 ). It includes sight, hearing, and smell. Armoring consists of a contraction and immobilization of the greater part or all of the muscles around the eye, eyelids, forehead, and tear glands, as well as the deep muscles at the base of the occiput-involving even the brain itself. I believe that the brain shows contraction to a greater or lesser extent in all the neuroses and if adequately mobilized enables the rest of the organism to tolerate expansion and movement. Contraction seems to be largely in the vegetative centers. This contraction causes and maintains the muscular contraction. It results from the original inhibition-specific "verbotens" producing specific contractions controlling various muscle groups which prevent the inhibition from expression. This is especially true in schizophrenia. Armoring in the ocular segment is expressed in an immobilized forehead (it appears flat) and eyelids. The flesh at the side of the nose is smooth and waxy. The patient is unable to open his eyes wide. Indeed, he will seem to be peering from the eyeholes of a false face. In schizophrenia the expression is empty, or as if the individual were staring into space. The more emotion brought up in looking, the less able is the individual to see clearly. The schizophrenic may see clearly but does so from the safety of his withdrawn shell. It is as if the neurotic looks but does not see, the schizophrenic sees but does not look, and the voyeur looks unseen.
One sees patients who, from an early age, have been unable to cry. Frequently one finds myopia and other visual disturbances that are not organic. The pupils may be dilated, particularly in schizophrenia, indicating deep anxiety. Anxiety or suspicion may be overtly, apparent (suspicion is seen best by having the patient look out of the corners of his eyes). The eyes may show hate or pleading like a cowed or cornered animal's. The majority of patients have an inhibition against healthy flirting, which leads to a holding across the brows. This is often replaced by a neurotic unconscious flirting, especially in hysterics. The eyes generally hold anxiety and when open are a mirror of the emotional state of the organism.
Signs and Symptoms
Frontal headaches are the most common symptom, and are caused by chronic raising of the eyebrows to express anxiety or surprise. The patient may complain of a band around the head. Occipital headaches are due to a spasm of the occipital muscles produced by a chronic "ducking" attitude caused by a fear of a blow from behind. Fear of being hit on the head results in a flat or expressionless attitude. Haughtiness may be a defense against a frightened or attentive attitude, and the appearance of one engaged in deep reflection often is a defense against anxiety about masturbation. Symptoms of dizziness are caused by insufficient armoring, which allows movement of more energy than can be tolerated.
Dissolution of the armor is accomplished by having the patient open his eyes wide during inspiration of breath, as in fright; and by mobilizing the forehead and eyelids through forcing an emo-tional expression. Mechanical exercises are of little value. The therapist should have the patient look suspiciously from side to side, roll the eyes while focusing and expressing anger, sadness, etc. Grimacing and direct work on the occipital muscles are help-ful.
It is sometimes necessary to move the forehead manually or open the eyelids to start the process or have the eyes focus on your moving finger. He should encourage the patient to open his eyes wide while breathing out, and to reach out with the eyes by flirting, smiling, longing, and other alive expressions. One can sometimes bring out emotion in the eyes by having the patient repeatedly look at you and away. The movement prevents holding and allows the expression to show itself.
Recently, Dr. Barbara Goldenberg developed a further technique in mobilizing the eyes by, the use of a moving light upon which the eyes focus. This seems to be an important break-through in therapeutic technique. Here she offers the following comments on the use of the light:
I believe the light affords a unique opportunity for getting at the deep armoring in the brain parenchyma, hitherto untouched except indirectly through mobilizing the eyes. One may postulate two factors at work: (1) the direct photic stimulation of the brain substance itself, and (2) the pushing of the patient beyond the visual stimulus threshold so that he is forced to give up holding in the eyes.
During an infant research field trip I had occasion to observe the visual stimulus threshold demonstrated and decided to see if it existed in other age groups as well. I noted that if one has a child or adult patient following a target (such as a pencil) moved randomly ten inches in front of the eyes, there is frequently a strong emotional reaction after about fifteen minutes. The time factor appears critical and a shorter time span may elicit nothing. This does not seem explainable by fatigue alone. Following this maneuver one can often elicit strong affective reactions in patients-reactions which used to take months of painstaking work to uncover. If a two-battery pen light is substituted as the target, in a darkened room, the added factor of direct phobic stimulation on the brain markedly intensifies the patient's reaction.
After fifteen minutes of such phobic stimulation I have sometimes obtained spontaneous abreactions. There is almost always a sharp increase in affective responses and the release of unconscious material. One has the impression that the organism feels more integrated and therefore "safer" in letting go of the holding. The upcoming material is usually that which is closest to the ego and ready to surface not chaotic bursts from deeper layers.
In lightly armored or unarmed patients, use of the light may elicit a partial or complete orgasm reflex. The effects on the eye segment and on contact are quite striking at times. For example, there was a marked difference in scholastic performance in two students (one a college physics major, the other in high school), both of whom went from failing to honor grades in the space of three months. One, an ambulatory schizophrenic, reported "a clearing in my head for the first time in my life," and a new found ability to grasp and assimilate what was taught in class. Two child patients, age 1-1/2 and 6, respectively, who manifested severe eye block by crying without tears developed a flow of tears after one session with the light. A borderline schizophrenic reported clearing of the chronic haze and yellowish cast before his eyes. Two migraine patients were entirely, free of headaches after a few sessions.
There is some evidence the light may be useful in reaching hitherto untreatable patients-for example, those with hooks, or those incorrectly treated by premature loosening Of the pelvic segment while the eyes were still heavily armored. Two of my patients showed mild symptoms referable to the pelvic segment following use of the light (pruritus ani and bleeding hemorrhoids), while the eye segment was opening up. One 63-year-old passive feminine developed streamings and hard erections after twelve years of impotence but it is still too early to assess if adequate functioning is present.
Both eye functioning and eye motility have received some attention in psychiatric circles. For example, Goldfarb of Ittleson found that schizophrenic children show a preferential neglect of distance receptors (eyes and ears) which may be reversible in part by treatment. He also noted their inability to have dissociated head-eye movements (i.e. if they follow a target with the eyes, the head also moves involuntarily). In my experience, some adult schizophrenics show this too. Goldfarb also observed that OKN (optokinetic nystagmus) is absent in schizo-phrenic children. Getman of Luverne, Minnesota, pointed out the absence of eye motility in non-readers or slow readers and advocated exercises to mobilize the eyes. Doman and Delacato of Pennsylvania stressed the importance of creeping in infants and the concomitant side-to-side head movements in developing good eye motility and thus good reading ability. The experiments in expanding consciousness and "op" art may also be related to eye segment armoring phenomena. It is possible that LSD may dissolve the deep armoring in the brain precipitously and with chemical insult to the tissue. This man be followed by a more severe re-armoring when the drug has worn off. A patient of mine who took one dose of peyote against my advice showed evidence of this. Oster produced LSD-like effects by having a subject look through a square pane of glass ruled with concentric circles. Some experimenters use flashing lights, and the alpha brain wave synchronizer of the hypnotists is fairly well known.
"A word of caution regarding use of the light. There is no substitute for empathic contact with the patient. If the light is used as a mechanical "gimmick" instead of in a contactful way, it will accomplish nothing or may do harm. Overuse is dangerous though most patients eventually build up a threshold of tolerance and man, require longer time exposure (20-25 minutes) Some patients learn to defend very successfully against the light or may even flee therapy. Most of them respond very positively and will comment on the difference it makes. A feeling of integration and well-being is commonly reported. However, sometimes a patient cannot tolerate the light organismically and this must be respected and not necessarily dismissed as resistance. Often one combines the light with other maneuvers, such as having the patient scream, hit or cry out words. The patient should be kept in contact and not allowed to drift off hypnotically. If used contactfully, the light is an extremely useful catalyst and means of reaching the deep cerebral armoring. Without contact it degenerates into a "gimmick." It can shorten and catalyze treatment but does not eliminate the need for the usual careful character analysis and segmental removal of armor from the head down. Sound is also important but we have not yet developed any special means of applying it. Of course we use it routinely in the tone of our voice which is frequently very effective in producing responses from the patient.
Throughout therapy, one never ceases to be aware of the eyes, but watches them constantly. They may have a different expression from the oral segment. For example, when the face is looked at as a whole the total expression may be one of anger; but when the eyes are looked at alone they may only appear sad, and the anger is found in the mouth.
One cannot overemphasize the importance of mobilizing the eyes and should never proceed further until the eyes can tolerate further release of energy. They are actually an extension of the brain and our only means of mobilizing the brain. I have seen too many cases in consultation where the eyes were neglected and armoring removed from the remainder of the body. The patient gives a picture of panic, expressed in the eyes, a masklike face and acute distress. This is not an easy situation to overcome.
The Oral Segment
The second segment includes the muscles controlling the chin and throat, the annular muscle at the mouth, and the muscles of the occiput. Together, they make a functional unit, so that dissolution of one part of the armor affects all the rest. For example, dissolution of the armoring of the masseters will lead to clonisms of the lips and jaw and the release of emotions natural to the area--crying and a wish to suck. The whole oral segment may in some cases be mobilized by eliciting the gag reflex. This is done by having the patient put his finger down his throat without stopping breathing. Full expression of the oral segment depends on the free mobility of the ocular or first segment and, sometimes, on loosening of lower segments. For example, crying may not be complete until the two subsequent segments are free. The jaw may be tight with clenched teeth or unnaturally loose; the lips may be thin and determined or thick and sensuous.
Signs and Symptoms
One may observe a silly grin, a sarcastic smile, or a contemptuous sneer. A timidly. friendly smile may be present or the mouth may be sad or even hard and cruel. The chin may sag, or be flat, pale, and lifeless. it may be pushed forward, giving a pugnacious appearance and causing a tightening of the floor of the mouth which holds back crying. A tight jaw leads to a monotonous, restrained voice. A tight throat leads to a whining, high, weak voice and harsh breathing. The mouth may be dry (from anxiety) or there may be excessive salivation (from un-satisfied oral needs).
The patient may speak little or talk constantly under pressure, or even stutter. The facial expressions as a whole should be observed carefully; the depressed face, the artificially beaming one, the one with stiff and sagging cheeks heavily with tears, or the one with masklike stiffness from suppressed crying. A wooden expression may be the result of an early attempt to avoid "making faces." Children are taught not to make faces, or "they will freeze that way." Also, the "face at the window," seen or imagined in early childhood, may be found frozen in a patient's expression. Children learn very early that faces must be rigidly controlled.
The oral segment generally holds back angrily biting, crying, yelling, sucking, and grimacing. During expiration some patients one will notice a progressive closing of the throat. This is the same mechanism that is active during the initial stage of swallowing. They must swallow back each impulse. Severe holding in the jaw may cause temporal headaches.
The therapist should stop the patient's talking, if excessive, and keep him from making extraneous or aggressive movements. have him accentuate the expression he is showing. If this accomplishes nothing, stop it. Exciting the patient causes a push of energy and eliminates voluntary defenses, allowing involuntary expressions to come out. Encourage these expressions. Direct work on the masseters and chin may be indicated, or having the patient make sounds that tend to mobilize the lips and throat may help. If crying is being held back the patient will try in vain to talk with a loud and resonant voice. Suppression of crying is frequently associated with nausea due to tension in the muscles of the floor of the mouth. Working on the submental muscles or on gagging may bring out the crying. Sometimes having the patient imitate crying causes release. The need to bite is almost always present and the patient may be allowed to bite a suitable object such as a towel. Sometimes in depression the expression remains depressed even after armor is dissolved. This is from habit and can be overcome by having the patient smile.
In stutterers the jaw, lips, tongue, and soft palate may each have to be dealt with separately, making the sounds puh for the lips, wah for the lips and jaw, lah for the tongue, and kuh for the soft palate.
The Cervical Segment
The third segment comprises the deep muscles of the neck, the platysma, and the sternocleido mastoids. It also includes the tongue, which is inserted mainly on the cervical bone system. The emotional function of armoring in the neck is to hold back anger or crying. The result is a stiff neck, a stubbornness, "I won't cry." Anger or crying is literally swallowed without the patient's even being aware of it. A fear of being choked leads to a lump in the throat and covers a desire to choke someone else. It is seen frequently in hysterics in connection with a fantasy of the father's penis in the throat, and of being choked by it. Their desire to choke leads to guilt and to a fear of being choked, a displacement of energy from lower segments upward (from hands and arms to throat). Some patients have a very sensitive larynx from a fear of having their throat cut.
Signs and symptoms
Frequent swallowing, voice changes, harsh breathing, cough-ing, the sensation of a lump in the throat, and choking sensations (fellatio fantasies) are the major indications of armor in this segment.
Elicit the gag reflex and reduce spasms of the sterno mastoids and deep muscles of the neck. Also elicit screaming and yelling. Remember the neck is very vulnerable, and one must proceed with great caution as there are many important nerves, vessels, and the larynx-all of which can be easily injured. I had one patient who suffered a severe bradycardia from pressure on the vagus due to armoring.
The Thoracic Segment
Although the chest segment can be divided into upper and lower parts, it can best be considered as a whole. It consists of the intercostal muscles, pectorals, deltoids, muscles of the scapula, spinal muscles, the chest cage and its contents, and the hands and arms. It is the most important segment because it contains the most vital structures, the heart and the lungs. It is the first segment to be blocked, by holding in inspiration to reduce anxiety. Thus expiration is never complete. Blocking places pressure on the solar plexus and reduces sympathetic excitation. In schizo-phrenia, the eyes have been damaged as well as the chest in the first ten days of life.
A chronic attitude of inspiration is the most important means of suppressing any emotion. In the majority of cases, this armor-ing should be reduced first in order to build up energy in breath-ing, and to put more inner pressure on blocks.
If the chest moves freely one has increased functioning even though further progress is impossible. in depressives the chest must be mobilized quickly to I build up energy and reverse the dying process. In patients w with a high charge, however, mobilization of the chest may be dangerous so that an outlet for energy must be provided first (such as the lower limbs).
Asthma is a special condition occurring in chest armoring in which there is a parasympathetic over-excitation to overcome sympathetic contraction. The patient assumes a calm and brave facade to cover up his deep anxiety. In other words, he refuses to be anxious. Deep rage is behind this facade, a rage caused by an inability to show anxiety; behind the rage is a deeper layer of anxiety. Thus, we have a calm facade, superficial anxiety, rage, deep anxiety. To overcome the condition one must make the patient anxious or make him imitate anxiety; in a sense, one must cause him to back away from the block. If the attack is slight, it can be relieved by having the patient vocalize- ahhhhhhhhhhhh. (According to Reich every asthmatic has a fantasized penis in his throat.)
In coronary or other heart conditions one must proceed with great caution or heart failure may occur. In coronary cases, the chest is very rigid and great caution is necessary in mobilization. If pain or pallor occurs one must stop, and one should always have cardiac stimulants handy. Once the chest is mobilized, however, a great strain is removed from the heart.
In the average patient the chest is usually rigid and does not move in respiration. It is held high in the inspiratory position and eventually gives rise to emphysema. If the chest does move, it may be high or low, rigid or soft, but with small excursion. In schizophrenia the chest is soft but movement barely perceptible.
The shoulders are held either back or forward but do not respond to breathing, and the head, instead of falling gently back-ward in expiration, usually comes forward or is jerked back forcibly. The spinal muscles may be acutely contracted. These are important regions of holding back and may prevent the chest from moving. They contain spite, a frozen anger. The inter-coastals are sensitive and painful and the patient may be very ticklish.
The emotions held in the chest arc heartbreak, bitter sobbing, rage (stronger than that found in the oral segment), reaching, and longing. These are deep emotions which when expressed afford much relief. ("A weight has been lifted from my chest.") The hands may be cold, clammy, and weak from withdrawal of energy. Armoring does not interfere much with manual dexterity, but withdrawal of energy does. The latter is an indication of more emotionally charged material and of more explosive emotions.
Laughing seems to come from the chest and is the least understood of the emotional expressions. Animals do not laugh. Primarily laughter is probably an expression of joy, but it seems to be a response to any excitation above the tolerance level. Laughing and crying may be interchangeable for any other emotion or for each other in addition to their basic functions. Natural crying is a result of need; as a secondary reaction it is a socially more acceptable vehicle for emotions such as rage.
Signs and Symptoms
An armored chest basically expresses restraint and self-control and will give a feeling of being unmoved or unaffected by events. Where there is no armor, the expressive motions of chest and arms give a free buoyant feeling. Typical armor is a chronic expiatory expansion, as if one had taken a very deep breath and not let it out, and it can be accompanied by high blood pressure, palpitation, and anxiety. Continued for a long time, a disposition to tuberculosis or pneumonia may develop, or the heart may become enlarged.
For the patient with an armored chest, rage is cold, crying is unmanly and longing is too soft. Reaching out or embracing are not felt vegetatively.
The hands lose their orgonotic charge and are cold, clammy, and painful (leading to Raynaud's disease). Behind the clamminess of the hands, there may be an impulse to choke which is armored off in the shoulder blades and hands.
Women who are armored in this segment have insensitive breasts and are disgusted at nursing. A knot may be felt in the chest from a spasm of the esophagus, behind which is a holding back of angry yelling. The related anxiety can be elicited by pushing on the chest and have the patient yell. The chest holding is mainly "I won't," and the ability to give and surrender depends on mobility of this segment. Early memories of disappointment and mistreatment may come out with release of the emotions of the chest, which is usually blocked very early. Memories seem bound in plasmatic immobility and are reactivated when excitation occurs.
Increase breathing with instructions to follow through in expiration, exert pressure on the chest during expiration or press gently on the epigastrium, and work directly on the intercostal muscles, deltoids, and spinal muscles. Elicit hitting, choking, tearing, scratching, yelling, rage, and sobbing, and finally, reaching with longing. Opening and closing the hands softly may bring out otherwise unnoticed anxiety. I saw one case of severe chronic headache produced through holding back impulses in the hands and arms. Where there is doubt between two emotions, use the more aggressive expression. For example, if a patient wants to cry he will do so after rage; but if he wants to get angry crying will inhibit his expression. The patient may continue one emotion to avoid another. When he appears to be enjoy it, it is time to stop it.
The Diaphragmatic Segment
The diaphragm separates the body into upper and lower parts and may be compared to a height of land. Above the diaphragm, expression is upward to the eyes, mouth, and arms. Below, the expression is through the pelvis. The stomach contents may be expelled in either direction.
The fifth segment includes the diaphragm and organs under it and does not depend on the mobility of the chest for functioning. The diaphragm may remain immobile even though the chest moves, and Nice versa. It comprises a contraction ring over the epigastrium, and lower end of the sternum, and goes along the inner ribs to the tenth, eleventh, and twelfth thoracic vertebrae. It contains the diaphragm, stomach, solar plexus, pancreas, liver, gall bladder, duodenum, kidneys, and two muscle bundles along the lower thoracic vertebrae. Armoring is expressed by lordosis of the spine (hollow under the patient's back). Breathing out is with effort and the abdomen balloons. The first four segments must be free before it can be loosened. For this, repeatedly eliciting the gag reflex without interrupting expiration is effective. When this is free, wave like movements occur in the upper part of the body with a feeling of giving; that is, the torso tends to fold up with each expiration. This segment holds severe murderous rage.
Signs and Symptoms
Symptoms are nervous stomach disorders, more or less constant nausea with an inability to vomit, peptic ulcer, gall bladder disease, liver conditions, and diabetes. The major abdominal organs are at the diaphragm, and blocking causes many psycho-somatic diseases.
Relieve the block by gagging and respiration. When the segment is opening, vomiting occurs.
The Abdominal Segment
This is the sixth armor ring. It includes the large abdominal muscles, the rectus, transversis abdominus, and muscles of the back (latissimus dorsi and sacro spinalis). The muscles at the flanks are especially important because in them one first finds tension from stasis in an unarmored person. Armored flanks produce ticklishness and hold spite. Stasis can be relieved by freeing tension in these muscles. Fear of attack is found in tension in the lumbar muscles, and is similar to tension in the neck from a desire to duck. Therapy is simple if the higher segments are open. Masses in the abdomen may appear and disappear during treatment of this segment.
The Pelvic Segment
The seventh and last segment contains all the muscles of the pelvis and lower limbs. The pelvis is usually pulled back. The muscles above the symphysis are tense and painful and so are the superficial and deep adductors of the thighs. The anal sphincter is contracted and pulled up, as is the whole pelvic floor. The gluteal muscles are contracted and sensitive. The pelvis usually is rigid, immobile, and sexual. Sensations and excitations are absent.
Signs and Symptoms
Symptoms from pelvis armoring are constipation, lumbago, growth in the rectum, ovarian cysts, polyps of the uterus, benign and malignant tumors, vaginal conditions, irritability of the bladder, irritation of the urethra, and vaginal and penis anesthesia. In the male, low energy), in the pelvis (anorgonia) leads to erective impotence or premature ejaculation, and in the female to anesthesia or vaginismus. The feet and legs may be cold and swollen, with numbness, tingling sensations, and varicosities.
This segment contains anxiety and rage. The latter is of two types: anal or crushing, and phallic or piercing. (Examples: anal-kicking; phallic-striking with the pelvis.) Pleasure in the pelvis area is impossible until the anger is released. Also present man- be contempt of the sex act and of all the pelvis structures.
The various spasms must be freed by mobilizing the pelvis and eliciting anxiety: and rage. This man be followed by having the patient repeatedly contract and relax the pelvic floor. "When this is accomplished the pelvis moves forward spontaneously at the end of each complete expiration, giving the orgasm reflex. It is then capable of reaching out and taking over during the orgasm with the complete surrender of the organism as a whole. This capacity gradually, develops into reality during the year or two following therapy. The patient's health must be structuralized.
The Layering of the Armor
There are three basic layers in every armored individual:
1. The superficial veneer or social facade.
2. The secondary or great middle layer where the sum of all the repressions has built up, resulting in destructive forces such as rage, spite, hate, contempt, etc. There are usually many subsidiary layers here.
3. The healthy core, the rational Self-regulating protoplasmic movement and excitation, which expresses itself when all blocking has been removed. Here lies the simple, decent individual below all irrational training and environmental influences.
Presumably the infant is born with a healthy emotional structure and without chronic armor. It has a basic energy charge and a natural aggressiveness depending on its freedom of growth in the uterus. The more spastic its developmental environment, the more its aggression is restricted. The higher the energy charge, the more the erect of the spastic environment is counteracted. Right after birth occurs, however, the organism is subjected to repeated restrictions of its natural and even secondary functioning. Each prohibition or inhibition becomes part of the character, through contraction due to anxiety (fear of punishment or rejection). Contraction causes an increase in inner ten-sion and the outward push of all repressed material under more pressure increases. This ever-increasing pressure produces harshness which expresses itself as hate. Hate must again be repressed, so only modified expressions such as contempt or disgust are allowed to come out.
Each emotion or urge is originally repressed by prohibition (fear) from the environment, which eventually is incorporated in the organism as the superego. The energy behind the repressed feeling is utilized in the repressing by maintaining contraction of the muscles. The feeling is, as it were, split in two; part of the energy is used to hold back the other part, and thus immobility is established.
If the repressing force is not equal to the push outward, then an alteration of the drive to a more acceptable, but less fulfilling, one is attempted. This is called reaction formation. Since the original feeling remains unexpressed and is still there, a constant pressure must be maintained to keep up the altered out-ward expression of the drive. The original drive itself absorbs energy, (libido) and becomes stronger, so that the reaction forma-tion gradually must spread to substitute for more feeling.
To relieve the situation this equilibrium must be disturbed, either by reducing the holding of energy (breaking the muscle spasm) or by increasing the inner push (breathing) or both.
The second or great middle layer is usually very complex; many sublayers pile one on another until a social adjustment has been reached which is presented as the social facade or personality. The personality is, then, the end result of all the social and educational restrictions placed upon the original healthy core. This may be a comparatively stable or unstable facade, depending on the effectiveness of the defenses in the middle layer and the degree of satisfaction the organism can still attain.
The social facade contains one (sometimes more) basic char-acter trait as its means of meeting the environment. This trait carries throughout therapy and causes the patient to react con-sistently in the same way to each problem he meets. It becomes the main character defense. Reich calls this trait the red thread and it must be recognized to understand and evaluate the individual. The basic character trait is never dissolved but remains always an integral part of the personality, although it my may be modified. It may be socially acceptable -- kindness, modesty, reserve, shyness, correctness, righteousness; or socially unacceptable dishonesty, cunning, or cheating.
The three layers are dealt with in each segment as it is mobilized and its armor dissolved until the final core of unitary vegetative functioning is reached. The most important thing is to mobilize and allow expression of hate. Each segment of the armor may contain a great number of subsidiary layers within the secondary layer. When a subsidiary layer yields, it is called a breakthrough. This may or may not be a dramatic event, but it is felt as a temporary relief. Sometimes a layer involving one segment cannot be removed or even discovered until other segments are freed. For example, some crying may come out with loosening of the first two segments, but deep sobbing comes only after freeing of the first four segments. In unlayering, one works from the outside in and from the head down to the pelvis. Even this cannot be held to rigidly. One must watch the needs of the organism.
The depth of the layer on which one is working is recognized by the extent to which the organism is involved in the response (emotion) and the ability of the patient to function. If the first four segments are free one is always working at a deep layer. Every warded-off impulse also serves the function of warding off a more deeply repressed impulse. Blocking of the outward flow of energy by contraction from the surface (armoring) leads to frustration. This results in a forceful push of energy from within because of increased pressure and autonomic excitation, thus producing rage. Rage is a forceful push of energy occurring when the natural soft flow is blocked. If energy instead of pushing out is withdrawn, weakness of the part results. An organism may, after a long time, cease building up energy when outlet is blocked and then it rapidly becomes weakened. This occurs particularly in severe depressions and is known as shrinking.
Where anxiety is felt, it means that there is an inefficient con-traction (armoring) against the outward push of energy and it signifies an unstable equilibrium. This state is deliberately produced during therapy in breaking down armoring. A patient gets well by standing or facing his anxiety. Anxiety occurs only where there is movement; that is, during the process of expansion or contraction. When contraction is complete and effective, anxiety ceases. An affect block represents a successful armoring or contraction.
Excessive fat can be looked upon as a form of armoring. The fat soaks up energy (1 gm. fat equals 9 calories as compared to 1 gm. protein equals 4 calories) and also acts as a protection against stimuli. It interferes greatly with therapy. Behind it is a great deal of anxiety.
Guilt is frequently a serious problem to overcome and has not been easy to understand from a bioenergetic viewpoint. We know of course that behind it is rage. Konia, in a personal discussion, has offered a possible explanation in that the energy carrying out the impulse remains stuck in the muscles short of completion. Excitation of this energy revives the feeling of guilt. For example, suppose a child is caught masturbating and commanded to stop immediately because it is felt he is doing some-thing bad. The energy behind this pleasurable experience is frozen in the muscles participating. Anything reviving a repetition of the act will reawaken the "verboten" and the guilt. Pressure is built up producing rage at the frustration. To overcome the guilt the muscles involved must be mobilized, expressing the rage, and the situation discussed, allowing a new guilt-free evaluation of the act.
Anorgonia appears to be a condition alternate to that of armoring, and is a reaction by the organism to very emotionally charged situations. Perhaps it would be better to say that armoring produces an immobilization by muscular contraction, while in anorgonia it occurs through immobilization of the plasma system.
Whether energy is actually withdrawn from the area, or merely lacks excitation, or receives too strong an excitation from the vegetative system is not clear. I believe that, in most cases at least, the last is the case and that it may result in paralysis of the vegetative system as well as of the tissue plasma generally.
When very vigorous excitations which travel fully to the genital (natural pleasure impulses) meet and conflict with disruptions of the orgasm reflex that are equally strong, anorgonia follows. The organism responds to the conflict with a block in plasma motility to control the strong, unfamiliar plasma excitation. The block is shown in weakness, falling anxiety, failing equilibrium, or collapsing. It is as if the expansion were to start and be unable to follow its natural course-as if the impulse itself were suddenly extinguished, and with that came loss of contact with the affected part.
Anorgonia may be a chronic condition from a gradual plas-matic shrinking. That is what occurs in cancer there is resignation, and also in depression; the result is a gradual lowering of the organismic energy level. It may also be an acute condition; an example is the falling anxiety which is a frequent complaint of orgasm anxiety.
In any case, an anorgonia condition in an adult can be traced to a childhood need to repress pleasure, that is, to stop expan-sion. Possibly the infantile prerequisites for the condition were met when a strong desire for physical contact was left ungratified. In most cases, anorgonia is not severe and can be overcome with-out too much difficulty. At other times, especially in cancer, it may be an extremely grave symptom.
Although in many cases of anorgonia there is undoubtedly a withdrawal of energy from the part affected, the basic mechanism seems to be that too strong an excitation produces paralysis of the plasma system.
Much still needs to be learned about anorgonia, but I have the impression that it is primarily a muscular problem. People suffering from this condition have struck me as consisting largely of internal organs and skin. That is, the muscles seem to be passive or unable to anticipate an emotional of energy to the genital. Whether the organism cannot stand the flow of energy in the muscles themselves or whether this passivity allows too great a flow to the skin is not clear. In any case, the result is a severe vegetative contraction with resulting weakness, coldness, and collapse. In principle at least, the condition seems to be an inability to tolerate aggression; since where the organism can tolerate aggression but cannot express it, armoring occurs.
One severe case of anorgonia occurred after intense feelings of hate followed by genital excitation. The area affected extended from the legs to the chest. The patient responded quickly when I had her dance to a record she was fond of. My rationale was that it would(I be beneficial to encourage excited energy to flow into the muscular system. Almost any activity that was safe, easily available and usually enjoyed by the individual concerned would likely have had the same effect.